Dodatki ekstra

Witryna w przebudowie

The extras have material for


Colors can help read and learn

Some verb forms can work as head verbs as well as auxiliaries. Our head verbs can head verb phrases. They tell the activity or faculty. Auxiliaries always require another verb. They help tell the language pattern, for example Simple, Progressive, or Perfect. We can use a color code, to make reading and learning easier. We can use invented words, to exercise language form.

Language mapping integration

ASPECTS MAPPEDWe can associate grammar and natural human mapping, as with geography and travel. We humans do not have the outer, indeterminate space for our regular living space. We live on Earth. We usually view land or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas in which we are. We perceive routes and ways to places. We happen to be at landmarks and places.

Such are natural human variables for space, in English.

Appendix 1. Verbs

Verbs tell activities, faculties, or states, for example to work, to think, or to be. They may do this in four Aspects. The Aspects are the Simple, the Progressive, the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive.

Appendix 2. Irregular verbs: high and low vowel qualities

We may think about the place and manner we make speech sounds, to remember verb patterns. Sounds [m], [p], and [b] are close in place; [v] and [f] differ in voicing, and [l] and [r] in manner. Here, we mind high and low vowels.

Appendix 3. Irregular verbs: back and front vowel qualities

Sounds [t], [d], [n], and [s] are close neighbors. Thought about the place and manner to make speech sounds can help learn irregular verbs. Here, we mind back and front vowels.

Appendix 4. The language chemistry for all tense patterns

We would not produce a form like „it’d worked” for „it had worked”. The form would be unnatural, owing to articulatory constraints. Natural phonology matters in grammatical correctness.

Knowledge about the USA

The absolutely basics about the USA

Many researchers derive democracy from ancient Greece. How could we compare ancient Greece and modern America? Ancient Greeks actually developed a proto-democracy: they happened to have kings and queens, depended heavily on military leaders and bequeathed elitism.

The Declaration of Independence

Feel welcome to the Dunlap typescript

The Declaration printer, John Dunlap, used a Caslon font and a print layout that capitalized nominals, that is, nouns and forms to derive from them with big, capital letters.

The Constitution

Feel welcome to the Carter typescript

Nowadays, only some researchers would use the word “constitution” for an ancient decree such as the Roman Twelve Tables. The modern meaning of the word constitution is that of an objective legal agreement to set the fundamental law in an autonomous country or land.

The Bill of Rights

Feel welcome to the Wheeler typescript

Some researchers would derive the Bill of Rights from the feudal Magna Carta, the charter associated with John the Lackland. We may look to the capitalization ― that is, the use of big letters ― in the engrossed copy of the Bill of Rights. The Bill answers real legal controversies of the times.

The Anthem

Feel welcome to the autograph and typescript

Some people may remember the Anthem as saying „through the midst of the deep”. The typescript here is of the manuscript from October 21, 1840, signed by Francis Scott Key.

The Gettysburg Address

Feel welcome to the Nicolay typescript

Civil rights were literally of a capital concern to American economy. The context of the Address may help realize that the Constitution and the Bill of Rights are not just works of idealism. They are works of conscious minds.

The American flag

Flag close

There is a code of conduct concerning the Flag. The Federal Flag Code is not prescriptive of all situations and does not impose penalties. Violating the guidelines may offend, however.

The US Great Seal

Charles Thomson, the secretary of the Continental Congress, designed the Seal and formed the mottos. He never provided a translation of the Latin phrases.

The American bald eagle

Bald eagle

Not everyone was happy with the choice of the eagle for a national symbol. For my own part, I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country, wrote Benjamin Franklin in one of his letters.

Voluntary extra practice

The practice asks questions on understanding of historic American documents. The suggested answers are not comprehensive; they could be of use in creative writing.