DODATEK 4. JĘZYKOWE WIĄZANIA WSZYSTKICH CZASÓW

PIERWSZA OSOBA LICZBY POJEDYNCZEJ:
I, me

 

INNE OSOBY:
you, we, they, he, she, it

 

ASPEKT SIMPLE
ZMIENNA KOGNITYWNA: ON (po polsku NA)

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

THE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will write.
Forma krótka
I’ll write.

 

INNE OSOBY:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will write.
Forma krótka
You’ll (we’ll, they’ll, he’ll, she’ll, it’ll) write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I write.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) write.
He (she, it) writes.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I wrote.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) wrote.

*****

THE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

 

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I write?

 

INNE OSOBY:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I write?

 

INNE OSOBY
Do you (we, they) write?

Does he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I write?

 

INNE OSOBY
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I will not write.
Forma krótka
I won’t write.

 

INNE OSOBY:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not write.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I do not write.
Forma krótka
I don’t write.

 

INNE OSOBY:
You (we, they) do not write.
He (she, it) does not write.
Forma krótka
You (we, they) don’t write.
He (she, it) doesn’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I did not write.
Forma krótka
I didn’t write.

 

INNE OSOBY:
You (we, they, he, she, it) did not write.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) didn’t write.

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not write?
Forma krótka
Won’t I write?

 

INNE OSOBY:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Forma krótka
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I not write?
Forma krótka
Don’t I write?

 

INNE OSOBY:
Do you (we, they) not write?
Does he (she, it) not write?
Forma krótka
Don’t you (we, they) write?

Doesn’t he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I not write?
Forma krótka
Didn’t I write?

 

INNE OSOBY
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Forma krótka
Didn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

ASPEKT PROGRESSIVE
ZMIENNA KOGNITYWNA: IN (po polsku W)

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

THE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will be writing.
Forma krótka
I’ll be writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) will be writing.
Forma krótka
You’ll be (we’ll be, they’ll be, he’ll be, she’ll be, it’ll be) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I am writing.
Forma krótka
I’m writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) are writing.
He (she, it) is writing.
Forma krótka
You’re (we’re, they’re) writing.
He’s (she’s, it’s) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I was writing.

 

INNE OSOBY:
You (we, they) were writing.
He (she, it) was writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I be writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Are you (we, they) writing?
Is he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Were you (we, they) writing?
Was he (she, it) writing?

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I will not be writing.
Forma krótka
I won’t be writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
 You (we, they, he, she, it) will not be writing.
Forma krótka
 You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t be writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I am not writing.
Forma krótka
I’m not writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) are not writing.
 He (she, it) is not writing.
Forma krótka
You’re not (we’re not, they’re not) writing.
 He’s not (she’s not, it’s not) writing.
Bądź też
You (we, they) aren’t writing.
 He (she, it) isn’t writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I was not writing.
Forma krótka
I wasn’t writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) were not writing.
He (she, it) was not writing.
Forma krótka
You (we, they) weren’t writing.
He (she, it) wasn’t writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not be writing?
Forma krótka
Won’t I be writing?

 

INNE OSOBY:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not be writing?
Forma krótka
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I not writing?
(Nie ma standardowej formy krótkiej;
jest jedynie forma potoczna „ain’t”.)

 

INNE OSOBY:
Are you (we, they) not writing?

 Is he (she, it) not writing?
Forma krótka
Aren’t you (we, they) writing?

Isn’t he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I not writing?
Forma krótka
Wasn’t I writing?

 

INNE OSOBY:
Were you (we, they) not writing?
Was he (she, it) not writing?
Forma krótka
Weren’t you  (we, they) writing?
Wasn’t he  (she, it) writing?

*****

ASPEKT PERFECT
ZMIENNA KOGNITYWNA: TO (po polsku DO)

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE TO

THE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:

I will have written.
Forma krótka
 I’ll have written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have written.
Forma krótka
You’ll have (we’ll have, they’ll have, he’ll have, she’ll have, it’ll have) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I have written.
Forma krótka
I’ve written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) have written.

He (she, it) has written.
Forma krótka
You’ve (we’ve, they’ve) written.
He’s (she’s, it’s) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I had written.
Forma krótka
I’d written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) had written.
Forma krótka
You ’d (we’d, they’d, he’d, she’d) written.
Nie było i nie ma w praktyce formy jak * „it’d”;
jest fonologicznie nieprawdopodobna. Używamy zawsze formy pełnej, np. It (the computer) had written it would surrender.

*****

THE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Will I have written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Have I written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Have you (we, they) written?

Has he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Had I written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE
I will not have written.
Forma krótka
I won’t have written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have written.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE
I have not written.
Forma krótka
I haven’t written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) have not written.

He (she, it) has not written.
Forma krótka
You (we, they) haven’t written.

He (she, it) hasn’t written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE
I had not written.
Forma krótka
I hadn’t written.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not written.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t written.

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I not have written?
Forma krótka
Won’t I have written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have written?
Forma krótka
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Have I not written?
Forma krótka
Haven’t I written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Have you (we, they) not written?

Has he (she, it) not written?
Forma krótka
Haven’t you (we, they) written?

Hasn’t he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Had I not written?
Forma krótka
Hadn’t I written?

 

INNE OSOBY
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not written?
Forma krótka
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

ASPEKT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
ZMIENNA KOGNITYWNA: AT (po polsku PRZY)

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE AT

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I will have been writing.
Forma krótka
I’ll have been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have been writing.
Forma krótka
You’ll have been (we’ll have been, they’ll have been, he’ll have been, she’ll have been, it’ll have been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I have been writing.
Forma krótka
I’ ve been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) have been writing.

He (she, it) has been writing.
Forma krótka
You’ve been (we’ve been, they’ve been) writing.
He’s been (she’s been, it’s been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I had been writing.
Forma krótka
I’ d been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) had been writing.
Forma krótka
You’d been (we’d been, they’d been, he’d been, she’d been) writing.
Jak przy wzorcu Perfect Simple, forma „it’d been” nie jest praktykowana.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I have been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Have you (we, they) been writing?
Has he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I will not have been writing.
Forma krótka
I won’t have been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have been writing.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I have not been writing.
Forma krótka
I haven’t been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they) have not been writing.

He (she, it) has not been writing.
Forma krótka
You (we, they) haven’t been writing.

He (she, it) hasn’t been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I had not been writing.
Forma krótka
I hadn’t been writing.

 

INNE OSOBY
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not been writing.
Forma krótka
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t been writing.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Will I not have been writing?
Forma krótka
Won’t I have been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have been writing?
Forma krótka
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I not been writing?
Forma krótka
Haven’t I been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Have you (we, they) not been writing?

Has he (she, it) not been writing?
Forma krótka
Haven’t you (we, they) been writing?

Hasn’t he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I not been writing?
Forma krótka
Hadn’t I been writing?

 

INNE OSOBY
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not been writing?
Forma krótka
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

 

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