Dodatek 3. Czasowniki nieregularne: samogłoski tylne i przednie

Strona w budowie

Możemy przedstawić czasowniki nieregularne pod względem przednich i tylnych jakości samogłosek.

 

Mouth__Schematic presentation

 

Vowel chart__Front and back vowel qualities

 

As all live languages, American English is not a monolith. It has regional varieties. The appendix includes regional variety. We mark regional forms as R, “regional”.

 

Regional varieties have second and third forms the same more often — we can choose and give them stars on our own. We may compare regional American forms for “chide” or “hide”.

 

chide

chid

chid

hide

hid

hid

 

Regional variants also resolve into a mid-to-back pattern more often. We may mark this with a tilde, that is, a flourish.

 

Flourish

spin

span R

spun

 

Regular forms may prevail in standard American. They are not a novelty, however. The King James’ Bible has a form as “builded”, for example.

 

Archaic or obsolete forms are those out of regular use. We do not predict here which forms might be in live use, therefore we mark forms that occur rarely as A, “aged”.

 

We will find our aged forms especially in poetry. Authors ― also American ― have used the forms for adjectives. We may follow in our wrought writings; we yet always have choice as learned people.

The prejudice about the language standard is that it excludes regional variety or prescribes which verb forms might ever be in use. Neither is true. It is prescriptive attitude to language, and not language itself, to try to make rulings.

 

With regard to language standard, we recognize socially cumbersome forms we mark as [TABOO]. Regional variety does not belong with these. We have regional and dialectal uses in literature, as in Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn. Let us mind, as learners, it takes a talent as Mark Twain’s, to use regional or dialectal forms for our written, literary works.

 

Irregular verb forms with regard to back and front vowel qualities, back to front.

 

1. Second and third forms [o] – [o]
[o] – [o] – [o]

 

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

 

[u:] – [o] – [o]

 

lose

lost

lost

shoe

shod/shoed

shod/shoed/shoddenR

shoot

shot

shot/shottenR

 

[ɅI ] — [o] — [o]

 

buy

bought

bought

fight

fought/foutR/fitR

fought/foughtenR/foutR/ fitR

 

[з] — [o] — [o]

 

work

worked/wroughtA (transitive sense)

worked REG / wroughtA (transitive sense)

 

[æ] — [o] — [o]

 

catch

caught/catchedR

caught/catchedR

 

[e:] — [o] — [o]

 

bear

bore

borne/born/boreR

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

swear

swore/swareA

sworn/sworeR

tear

tore/tareA

torn/tareA/toreR

tread

trod/treaded

trodden/trodR/treadR

wear

wore

worn/woreR

 

Please compare to bear, to lower the prices; beared [e], beared [e].
Please compare to tear [tI:r], to fill with tears, shed tears; teared [I:], teared [I:]

 

[I] — [o] — [o]

 

think

thought/thunkR
(transitive sense)

thought/ thunkR
(transitive sense)

Flourishbring

brought/ brangR / brungR/
broughtenR

brought/ brangR / brungR/ broughtenR

seek

sought

sought

shear

sheared/shoreR

sheared/shorn

teach

taught

taught

 

[oI] — [oI] — [oI]

spoil

spoiled /spoilt

spoiled/spoilt

 

[ou] — [ou] — [ou]

 

mow: to cut, crop

mowed

mowed/mown

mow: to pile as in a haymow

mowed

mowed

mow: to make faces

mowed

mowed

sew: to stitch

sewed

sewed/sewn

show

showed

showed/shown

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

 

Please compare to sew, to drain of water; sewed, sewed.

 

[u] — [ou] — [ou]

 

choose

chose

chosen/choseR

 

[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

shine

shone/shined

shone/shined

 

[eI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

break

broke/brakeR

broken/brokeR

stave

stove/staved

stove/staved

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked/wokeR

 

[ I:] — [ou] — [ou]

 

cleave: to separate, to split

clove/cleaved/cleft/claveA

cloven/cleaved/cleft/

cleave to: to adhere

clove/cleaved/claveA

clove/cleaved

freeze

froze/frizR

frozen/frozeR/frizR

heave

hove/heaved/hovedR

hove/heaved/hovenA&R

speak

spoke/spakeA

spoken/spokeA

steal

stole

stolen/stoleR

weave: to interlace

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

 

Please compare to weave: to waver; weaved [I:], weaved [I:].

 

2. Second and third forms [u:] — [u:]
[æ] — [u:] — [u:]

 

stand

stood

stood

 

3. Second and third forms [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]
[ɅI] — [Ʌu] — [Ʌu]

 

bind

bound

bound/boundedA

find

found

found

grind

ground/grindedR/groundenA

ground/grindedR/ groundenA

wind: to warp

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

wind: to blow a horn

winded [ɅI] / /wound

winded [ɅI] / /wound

 

Please compare to wind, to limit the breath, to expose to wind, dry; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

Please compare to wind, to smell a scent; winded [ɅI], winded [ɅI].

 

[ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

thrust

thrust

thrust

 

[e] — [ Ʌ] — [ Ʌ]

 

get

got/gatA

got/gotten

 

[I] — [Ʌ ] — [Ʌ ]

 

Flourishcling

clung/clangR

clung

dig

dug

dug

Flourishfling

flung/flangR

flung

Flourishsling: to throw

slung/slangR

slung

sling: to put in a sling

slung/slinged

slung/slinged

Flourishslink

slunk/slinkedR/slankR

slunk

Flourishspin

spun/spanR

spun

stick

stuck

stuck

Flourishsting

stung/stangR

stung

Flourishstink (TABOO)

stunk/stankR

stunk

Flourishstring

stringed/strung/strangR

stringed/strung

Flourishswing

swung/swangR

swung

win

won

won

wring

wrung

wrung

 

Please compare to cling: to make a metallic sound; clinged, clinged.

 

Please compare to sling: to drink alcohol (TABOO); slung/slinged, slung/slinged.

 

Please compare to stick: to arrange, to support with a stick; sticked, sticked.

 

Please compare to win: to reside BRE;R (intransitive) winned BRE,R winned BRE.R

 

Please compare to win: to dry BRE;R won BRE,R won BRE.R

 

[ ɅI] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

strike

struck

struck/stricken

 

[æ] — [Ʌ] — [Ʌ]

 

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

 

4. Second and third forms [ з ] — [ з ]
[з] — [ з ] — [ з ]

 

burn

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

learn

learned/learnt BRE

learned/learnt BRE

 

[ I] — [з] — [ з]

 

hear

heard/hearedR / hearnA

heard/hearedR / hearnA

 

5. Second and third form [ e] — [e]
[o] [ e] — [e]

 

hold

held/hiltR

held/holdenA

 

[e] [ e] — [e]

 

bend

bent/bendedR

bent/bendedR

blend: to blind, to deceive A
(transitive only)

blend/blentA

blent/blendedA

blend: to mix

blended REG / blent

blended REG / blent

bless

blessed REG / blest

blessed REG / blest

lend

lent

lent

rend

rended/rent

rended/rent

smell

smelled REG / smelt BRE

smelled/smelt BRE

send

sent

sent

spell

spelled/spelt BRE

spelled/spelt BRE

spend

spent

spent

 

Please compare to bless: to shake, brandish (weapon);A blessedA, blessed.A

 

Please compare to spell: to take turns, to allow to rest; spelled, spelled.

 

Please compare to spell: to becharm; spelled, spelled.

 

[eI] — [e] — [e]

 

gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

say

said/saidestA/saidstA

said

 

Please compare to say: to assay, to try, to test; (as)sayed [eI], (as)sayed [eI].

 

[I] — [e] — [e]

 

bereave

bereaved/bereft

bereaved/bereft/bereavenA

bleed

bled/bleededR

bled/bleededR

breed

bred

bred

deal

dealt

dealt

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

flee

fled

fled

keep

kept

kept

kneel

kneeled/knelt

kneeled/knelt

lead

led

led

lean

leaned/ leant BRE

leaned/leant BRE

leave

left

left

leap

leaped REG / leapt

leaped REG / leapt

mean

meant/meanedA

meant/meanedA

meet

met

met

read

read

read

sleep

slept

slept

speed

speeded/sped

speeded/sped

sweep

swept

swept

weep

wept

wept

 

Please compare to bleed: to provide, to be drained for, e.g. money (in the passive) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to bleed: to produce or to make pass (baseball slang) TABOO; bleededR [I:] TABOO, bleededR [I:] TABOO.

 

Please compare to lead [led], to cover in lead; leaded [e], leaded [e].

 

Please compare to lean, to make inclined; leaned [I:], leaned [I:].

 

Please compare to leave,: to produce leaves; leaved [I:], leaved [I:].

 

Please compare to mean: to mediate;A meanedA [I:], meanedA [I:].

 

[eI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

lade

laded

laded/laden

lay

laid

laid

make

made

made

pay

paid

paid

shave

shaved

shaved REG/shaven

 

Please compare to pay: to slacken (a rope, for example); paid/payed, paid/payed.

 

Please compare to shave: to reduce in amount; shaved, shaved.

 

[ɅI] — [eI] — [eI]

 

lie: remain in a horizontal position

lay

lain/lienA [Iə]

Please compare to lie [ɅI], to make a false statement; lied [ɅI], lied [ɅI].

 

6. Second and third forms [ I] — [ I]
[ɅI] — [ I] — [ I]

 

bite

bit

bitten/bitR

chide

chided /chid/chodeA

chided /chid/chidden

hide

hid

hidden/hid

light: to brighten

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

light: to dismount

lighted REG / lit

lighted REG / lit

slide

slid/slidedR/slodR

slid/slidedR/sliddenA

 

Please compare to hide: to punish by beating TABOO; hided [ɅI] TABOO, hided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to be/feel slided: to be/feel cheated or wasted (in the passive) TABOO; slided [ɅI] TABOO, slided [ɅI] TABOO.

 

Please compare to slip-slide: to become lower in grade; slip-slided [ɅI], slip-slided [ɅI].

 

[I] — [I] — [I]

 

build

built/buildedA

built/buildedA

gild

gilded/gilt

gilded/gilt

gird

girded/girt

girded/girt

hit

hit

hit

knit

knitted/knit/knetR

knitted/knit/knetR

spill

spilled /spilt

spilled /spilt

rid

ridded /rid

ridded /rid

 

Please compare to gird: to strike, to mock BRE; girded BRE, girded BRE.

 

[ I:] — [ I:] — [ I:]

 

beat

beat

beaten/beatR/betR

 

7. A back diphtong can resolve into a front vowel.

 

[ɅI:] — [ou] — [ I:]

 

drive

drove/draveA/drivR/druvR

driven/droveA/ drivR/druvR

ride

rode/ridR/radeR

ridden/ridR/rodeR

rise

rose/riseA/rizR

risen/rizR

rive

rived/rove

rived/riven

shrive

shrived/shrove

shrived/shriven

smite

smote/smit

smitten/smote/smit

stride

strode

stridden

strive

strived/strove

strived/striven/stroveR/

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived/thriven

write

wrote/writR

written/wroteR/writR

 

Most transcriptions consider [ɅI] a diphthong. The [I] never becomes [ I:], however. In articulation, it will become a glide, like the y in “you”.

 

8. Vowel quality can be back to the base form.
[o] — [u] — [o]

 

draw

drew/drawedR

drawn

know

knew/knowedR

known/knowedR

 

[o] — [e] — [o]

 

fall

fell

fallen

 

[ou] — [u] — [ou]

 

blow: to make a current of air

blew/blowedR

blown/blowedR

blow
(to blossom) A

blewA

blown/bloweA

crow

crowed REG / crew

crowed

grow

grew/growedR

grown/growedR

throw

threw/throwedR/trunR

thrown/throwedR

 

[Ʌ] — [æ] — [Ʌ]

 

Flourishrun

ran/runR

run

 

The mid to back pattern is not only regional.
[Ʌ] — [eI] — [Ʌ]

 

come

came/comeR/comedR

come/comedR

 

[eI] — [U] — [ eI]

 

take

took/takenR

taken/tookR

shake

shook/shakedR/shakenR

shaken/shakedR

 

[I] — [eI] — [I]

 

bid

bade/bid/badA

bidden/bid/bade

give

gave/give/givR/guvR

given/givR/guvR

 

[I:] — [o:] — [I:]

 

see

saw/seedR/seenR

seen/seedR/sawR

 

[ I:] — [o:/e:] — [I:]

 

be

was/were

been

 

[I:] — [eI] — [I:]

 

eat

ate/eatR

eaten/eatR

 

The mid-to-back pattern belongs well with the language standard.
[ɅI] — [ou] — [ou]

 

Flourishbegin

began/begunR

begun

Flourishdrink

drank/drunkR/drinkedR

drunk/drankR/drinkedR/ drunkenA

Flourishring

rang

rung

Flourishsing

sang/sungR

sung/sangR

Flourishsink

sank/sunkR

sunk/sunken

Flourishshrink

shrank/shrunkR

shrunk/shrunken

Flourishspring

sprang/sprungR

sprung

Flourishswim

swam/swumR

swum/swamR

 

Please compare to ring: to put on or form a ring; ringed [I], ringed [I].

 

Please compare to spring: to supply with springs; springed [I] REG / sprung, springed [I] REG / sprung.

 

10. A few verbs keep a front-to-back pattern
[ I] — [æ] — [æ]

 

sit

sat/sotR/sateA

sat/sotR/sittenA

spit

spit/spat

spit/spat/spittedR/spittenA

 

Please compare to spit: to fix (like) with a spit, that is, a pointed rod; spitted, spitted.

 

[e] — [e] — [o]

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen

 

Let us remember about our „verb cradle” from Appendix 2. The “cradle” becomes more visible when we compare the “focused” have.
[æ] — [æ] — [æ]

 

have/has

had

had

 

[ou] — [e] — [Ʌ]

 

go

went/goedR

gone/wentR

 

[ɅI] — [U] — [oU]

 

fly

flew

flown

 

[ U] — [I] — [Ʌ]

 

do

did/doneR/didstA

done

 

We may do an exercise: we can look up the verbs that have the same first, second, and third forms, in Appendix 2. We can put them in a back-to-front order.

 

Exercises are better than memorizing forms. If we memorize, we can learn fast (as for tests), but our memories may not last long after the tests. To remember irregular forms long-term, we can exercise ordering them, or have a look at a few forms from time to time, leave them for a while, and be back with them later. To my experience, exercises and vowel patterns themselves appeal best to human memory.

 

We might avoid extra-linguistic approaches. They are called extra-linguistic, as they ascribe language features to matters and events outside language. An extralinguistic approach might tell we should do things in order to learn words, as that we should ski to learn the verb to ski. Then, our memories might get used to having words for as closely related to actions, that we begin to neglect the language form, however. Obviously, we would not be able learn a multitude of words there are, in such a way, and only some people have climbed Mount Everest.

 

Let us try antoher exercise.

 

Exercise 31. Let us think if we could “sum up” verb forms. If we look them up in a dictionary, we will find that their meanings often are not mere sums, and they can vary in regularity.

 

become, befall, beget, behold, beseech, beset, betake, bethink, forbear, forbid, forecast, foreknow, foresee, foretell, forget, forgive, forsake, forswear, hamstring, miscast, misdeal, misgive, mislay, mislead, misspell, misspend, mistake, misunderstand, outbid, outdo, outgo, outgrow, outride, outrun, outshine, overbear, overcast, overcome, overdo, overhang, overhear, overlay, overleap, overlie, overlook, override, overrun, oversee, overshoot, oversleep, overtake, overthrow, partake, recast, remake, repay, rerun, reset, retell, rewrite, unbend, unbind, underbid, undergo, understand, undertake, undo, waylay, withdraw, withold, withstand.

 

All natural languages have speech sounds and patterns of speech sounds. We can call the patterns paradigms. Some irregular verb paradigms in English have lasted longer than a thousand years. This does not mean the language has not changed, and that we do not need to learn the patterns, to know them — thinking about language form.

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