Dodatek 3. Czasowniki nieregularne: samogłoski tylne i przednie

Strona w budowie

We can present irregular verbs looking to back and front vowel qualities. Again, the appendix is for reference; it is to help comprehend American English as it is, and not for compulsory study.

Vowel chart__Front and back vowel qualities

As all live languages, American English is not a monolith. It has regional varieties. Telling what is American and what is non-American to say will not belong with this grammar course. The appendix includes regional variety. We mark regional forms as R, “regional”. All along, we may choose to follow standard American patterns.

Regional varieties have second and third forms the same more often — we can choose and give them stars on our own. Let us remember to be coherent; we may refer to the key (see all formats). We may compare regional American forms for “chide” or “hide”.

Star

chide

chid

chid R

Star

hide

hid

hid R

Regional variants resolve into a mid-to-back pattern more often. We may mark this with a tilde, that is a flourish.

Flourish

spin

span R

spun

Regular forms may seem to prevail in the contemporary American standard. They are not a novelty, however. The King James’ Bible has a form like “builded”, for example.

Archaic or obsolete forms are forms out of regular use. However, there is no way to predict which forms might return into live use. Archaic forms are those considered older or more likely to occur in literature. Obsolete forms are those considered unlikely to recur ever.

Let us imagine a company launching headphones they name “Hearn”, [hI:rn]. Linguistically, “hearn” is an archaic or obsolete form of the verb to hear”. The form might recur within a few months of an advertising campaign to say “S/he’s just hearn it”, for example. This is why this book has both obsolete and archaic forms for A, “aged”. Creative language use is not erroneous.

__Smiley PNGWe will find our aged forms especially in poetry. Authors ― also American ― have used the forms for adjectives. We may follow in our wrought writings; we yet always have choice as learned people.

The prejudice about the language standard is that it excludes regional variety or prescribes which verb forms might ever be in use. Neither is true. With regard to language standard, we recognize socially cumbersome forms we mark as [TABOO]. Regional variety cannot and does not belong with these. Literary uses of verb forms obviously are not excluded from standard.Mouth__Schematic presentation

We may focus on regional and aged or adjectival American English forms and think about the back and the front of the human mouth.

Link to appendix 3 PDF irregular verbs
APPENDIX 3
CLICK TO DOWNLOAD PDF

We may learn irregular verbs easy,

looking to speech sounds

and repeating from time to time

Irregular verb forms with regard to back and front vowel qualities, back to front.

1.

o

[o] – [o]

[o]

[o]

[o]

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

[υ:]

[o]

[o]

lose

lost

lost

shoe

shod/shoed

shod/shoed/shoddenR

shoot

shot

shot/shottenR

[˄I]

[o]

[o]

buy

bought

bought

fight

fought/foutR/fitR

fought/foughtenR/foutR/ fitR

[:]

[o]

[o]

work

worked/wroughtA (transitive sense)

worked REG / wroughtA (transitive sense)

Link to appendix 1

Verbs in transitive senses always have objects. We may compare appendix 1.

[æ]

[o]

[o]

catch

caught/catchedR

caught/catchedR

[e]

[o]

[o]

bear

bore

borne/born/boreR

get

got/gatA

got/gotten

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

swear

swore/swareA

sworn/sworeR

tear

tore/tareA

torn/tareA/toreR

tread

trod/treaded

trodden/trodR/treadR

wear

wore

worn/woreR

Please compare to bear: to lower the prices

beared [e]

beared [e]

Please compare to tear [tI:r]: fill with tears, shed tears

teared
[I:]

teared
[I:]

[I]

[o]

[o]

think

thought/thunkR

(transitive sense)

thought/ thunkR

(transitive sense)

Flourish

bring

brought/brungR/brangR/

broughtenR

brought/brungR/brangR/

broughtenR

[I:]

[o]

[o]

seek

sought

sought

teach

taught

taught

shear

sheared/shoreR

sheared/shorn

[oI][oI]

[oI]

[oI]

[oI]

spoil

spoiled /spoilt

spoiled/spoilt

[] – []

[]

[]

[]

mow: to cut, crop

mowed

mowed/mown

mow: to pile as in a haymow

mowed

mowed

mow: to make faces

mowed

mowed

sew: to stitch

sewed

sewed/sewn

sew: to drain

sewed

sewed

show

showed

showed/shown

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

[υ:]

[]

[]

choose

chose

chosen/choseR

[˄I]

[]

[]

shine

shone/shined

shone/shined

[eI]

[]

[]

break

broke/brakeR

broken/brokeR

stave

stove/staved

stove/staved

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked/wokeR

[I:]

[]

[]

cleave: to separate, to split

clove/cleaved/cleft/claveA

cloven/cleaved/cleft/

cleave to: to adhere;

clove/cleaved/claveA

clove/cleaved

freeze

froze/frizR

frozen/frozeR/frizR

heave

hove/heaved/hovedR

hove/heaved/hovenA&R

speak

spoke/spakeA

spoken/spokeA

steal

stole

stolen/stoleR

weave: to interlace

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

Please compare to weave: to waver

weaved
[I:]

weaved
[I:]

2.

υ (:)

[æ]

[υ:]

[υ:]

stand

stood

stood

3.

˄

[˄υ] – [˄υ]

[˄I]

[˄υ]

[˄υ]

bind

bound

bound/boundedA

find

found

found

grind

ground/grindedR/groundenA

ground/grindedR/ groundenA

wind: to warp

winded [˄I]/wound

winded [˄I]/wound

wind: to blow a horn

winded [˄I] /wound

winded [˄I]/wound

Please compare to wind, [wInd]: to limit the breath, to expose to wind, dry

winded
[I]

winded
[I]

Please compare to wind: to smell a scent

winded
[I]

winded
[I]

[˄] – [˄]

[˄]

[˄]

[˄]

thrust

thrust

thrust

[I]

[˄]

[˄]

Flourish

cling

clung/clangR

clung

dig

dug

dug

Flourish

fling

flung/flangR

flung

Flourish

sling: to throw

slung/slangR

slung

sling: to put in a sling

slung/slinged

slung/slinged

sling: to drink alcohol (TABOO)

slung/slinged

slung/slinged

Flourish

slink

slunk/slinkedR/slankR

slunk

Flourish

spin

spun/spanR

spun

stick

stuck

stuck

Flourish

sting

stung/stangR

stung

Flourish

stink (TABOO)

stunk/stankR

stunk

Flourish

string

stringed/strung/strangR

stringed/strung

Flourish

swing

swung/swangR

swung

win

won

won

wring

wrung

wrung

Please compare to cling: to make a metallic sound

clinged

clinged

Please compare to stick: to arrange, to support with a stick

sticked

sticked

Please compare to win: to reside BRER (intransitive)

winned BRER

winned BRER

Please compare to win: to dry BRER

won BRER

won BRER

[˄I]

[˄]

[˄]

strike

struck

struck/stricken

[æ]

[˄]

[˄]

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

4.

(:)

[]

[]

[]

burn

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

burned/burnt/brentA/brunt BRER

learn

learned/learnt BRE

learned/learnt BRE

[I:]

[]

[]

hear

heard/hearedR/

hearnA

heard/hearedR/

hearnA

5.

e (:)

[e] – [e]

[o]

[e]

[e]

hold

held/hiltR

held/holdenA

[e]

[e]

[e]

bend

bent/bendedR

bent/bendedR

blend: to blind, to deceive A

(transitive only)

blend/blentA

blent/blendedA

blend: to mix

blended REG/blent

blended REG/blent

bless

blessed REG/blest

blessed REG/blest

lend

lent

lent

rend

rended/rent

rended/rent

smell

smelled REG/smelt BRE

smelled/smelt BRE

send

sent

sent

spell

spelled/spelt BRE

spelled/spelt BRE

spend

spent

spent

Please compare to bless: to shake, brandish (weapon)A

 

blessedA

blessedA

Please compare to spell: to take turns, to allow to rest

spelled

spelled

Please compare to spell: to becharm

spelled

spelled

[eI]

[e]

[e]

gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

say

said/saidestA/saidstA

said

Please compare to say: to assay, to try, to test

(as)sayed[eI]

(as)sayed[eI]

[I:]

[e]

[e]

bereave

bereaved/bereft

bereaved/bereft/bereavenA

bleed

bled/bleededR

bled/bleededR

breed

bred

bred

deal

dealt

dealt

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

flee

fled

fled

keep

kept

kept

kneel

kneeled/knelt

kneeled/knelt

lead

led

led

lean

leaned/ leant BRE

leaned/leant BRE

leave

left

left

mean

meant/meanedA

meant/meanedA

meet

met

met

read

read

read

sleep

slept

slept

speed

speeded/sped

speeded/sped

sweep

swept

swept

weep

wept

wept

Please compare to bleed: to provide, to be drained for, e.g. money (in the passive) (TABOO)

bleededR [I:]

(TABOO)

bleededR [I:]

(TABOO)

Please compare to bleed: to produce or to make pass (baseball slang) (TABOO)

bleededR [I:]

(TABOO)

bleededR [I:]

(TABOO)

Please compare to lead: [led]: to cover in lead

leaded [e]

leaded [e]

Please compare to lean: to make inclined

leaned [I:]

leaned [I:]

Please compare to leave: to produce leaves

leaved [I:]

leaved [I:]

Please compare to mean: to mediateA

meanedA [I:]

meaned A [I:]

[eI] – [eI]

[eI]

[eI]

[eI]

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

lade

laded

laded/laden

lay

laid

laid

make

made

made

pay

paid

paid

shave

shaved

shaved REG/shaven

Please compare to pay: to slacken (a rope, for example)

paid/payed

paid/payed

Please compare to shave: to reduce in amount

shaved

shaved

[˄I]

[eI]

[eI]

lie: remain in a horizontal position

lay

lain/lienA [Iə]

Please compare to lie, [˄I]: to make a false statement

lied[˄I]

lied[˄I]

6.

I (:)

[I] – [I]

[˄I]

[I]

[I]

bite

bit

bitten/bitR

chide

chided /chid/chodeA

chided /chid/chidden

hide

hid

hidden/hid

light: to brighten

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

light: to dismount

lighted REG/lit

lighted REG/lit

slide

slid/slidedR/slodR

slid/slidedR/sliddenA

Please compare to hide: to punish by beating (TABOO)

hided [˄I]

(TABOO)

hided [˄I]

(TABOO)

Please compare to be/feel slided: to be/feel cheated or wasted (in the passive) (TABOO)

slided [˄I]

(TABOO)

slided [˄I]

(TABOO)

Please compare to slip-slide: to become lower in grade

slip-slided [˄I]

slip-slided [˄I]

[I]

[I]

[I]

build

built/buildedA

built/buildedA

gild

gilded/gilt

gilded/gilt

gird

girded/girt

girded/girt

hit

hit

hit

knit

knitted/knit/knetR

knitted/knit/knetR

spill

spilled /spilt

spilled /spilt

rid

ridded /rid

ridded /rid

Please compare to gird: to strike, to mock BRE

girded BRE

girded BRE

[I:]

[I:]

[I:]

beat

beat

beaten/beatR/betR

leap

leaped REG/leapt [e]

leaped REG/leapt [e]

7.

A back diphthong can resolve into a front vowel.

[˄I]

[]

[I]

drive

drove/draveA/drivR/druvR

driven/droveA/ drivR/druvR

ride

rode/ridR/radeR

ridden/ridR/rodeR

rise

rose/riseA/rizR

risen/rizR

rive

rived/rove

rived/riven

shrive

shrived/shrove

shrived/shriven

smite

smote/smit

smitten/smote/smit

stride

strode

stridden

strive

strived/strove

strived/striven/stroveR/

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived/thriven

write

wrote/writR

written/wroteR/writR

Most transcriptions consider [˄I] to be a diphthong. The [I] in it cannot be taken literally to stand for the I (:) speech sound, however. In real articulation, it will become a glide, like the [y] in “you”.

This is why the diphthong may be termed a back diphthong, although I (:) is a front speech sound.

8.

Vowel quality can be back to the original infinitive.

[o]

[υ:]

[o]

draw

drew/drawedR

drawn

know

knew/knowedR

known/knowedR

[o]

[e]

[o]

fall

fell

fallen

[]

[υ:]

[]

blow: to make a current of air

blew/blowedR

blown/blowedR

blow
(to blossom) A

blewA

blown/bloweA

crow

crowed REG/crew

crowed

grow

grew/growedR

grown/growedR

throw

threw/throwedR/trunR

thrown/throwedR

[˄]

[æ]

[˄]

Flourish

run

ran/runR

run

The mid-to-back pattern is not regional only.

[˄]

[eI]

[˄]

come

came/comeR/comedR

come/comedR

[eI]

[υ:]

[eI]

take

took/takenR

taken/tookR

shake

shook/shakedR/shakenR

shaken/shakedR

[I]

[eI]

[I]

bid

bade/bid/badA

bidden/bid/bade

give

gave/give/givR/guvR

given/givR/guvR

[I:]

[o:]

[I:]

see

saw/seedR/seenR

seen/seedR/sawR

[I:]

[eI]

[I:]

eat

ate/eatR

eaten/eatR

9.

The mid-to-back pattern belongs well with the language standard.

[I]

[æ]

[˄]

Flourish

begin

began/begunR

begun

Flourish

drink

drank/drunkR/drinkedR

drunk/drankR/drinkedR/ drunkenA

Flourish

ring

rang

rung

Flourish

sing

sang/sungR

sung/sangR

Flourish

sink

sank/sunkR

sunk/sunken

Flourish

shrink

shrank/shrunkR

shrunk/shrunken

Flourish

spring

sprang/sprungR

sprung

Flourish

swim

swam/swumR

swum/swamR

Please compare to ring: to put on or form a ring

ringed [I]

ringed [I]

Please compare to spring: to supply with springs

springed REG/sprung

springed REG/sprung

[I]

[æ]

[æ]

sit

sat/sotR/sateA

sat/sotR/sittenA

spit

spit/spat

spit/spat/spittedR/spittenA

Please compare to spit: to fix (like) with a spit, that is, a pointed rod

spitted

spitted

[e]

[e]

[o]

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen

10.

We can find a few irregular forms as in a “cradle”.

[]

[e]

[˄]

go

went/goedR

gone/wentR

[˄I]

[υ:]

[]

fly

flew

flown

[υ]

[I]

[˄]

do

did/doneR/didstA

done

[I:]

[o/e]

[I]

be

was/were

been

The “cradle” becomes more visible when we compare our “focused” have.

[æ]

[æ]

[æ]

have/has

had

had

We do not need to memorize the appendixes. They are just to show the variety of forms that American English has. We may have a look, leave the matter for some time, and be back with it later, when we have done more language work.

To learn, we might do better without extra-linguistic approaches: the theories and learning techniques ascribe linguistic facts to factors outside language. For example, a book might advise to make or do things, in order to learn words. Obviously, this is not the way naturally to learn the multitude of words there is, and only some people have climbed Mount Everest. We may do well with our paradigms, that is, patterns of speech sound change. We also can integrate our infinity symbol into the picture. We do not have to think if the number of irregular verbs is expanding or shrinking, and we may choose on the patterns we learn. Let us take the last exercise in this part of our journey.

Exercise 31. Let us think if we could try to “sum up” verb forms. If we look them up in a dictionary, we find that their meanings often are not mere sums. More, their form regularity can vary dependent on the meaning as well as sound.

We can use the framework of appendix 3 and compare some of our potentially stubborn inflexibles from appendix 2.

bet

betted/bet

betted/bet

broadcast

broadcasted/broadcast

broadcasted/broadcast

burst

bursted/burst/brastA

bursted/burst/brastA

cast

cast

cast

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

hit

hit

hit

hurt

hurt/hurtedR

hurt/hurtedR

let

let

let

put

put

put

set

set

set

Please compare to cost: to estimate the cost

costed

costed

Please compare to clear-cut: to deforest

clear-cut/clear-cuttedR

clear-cut/clear-cuttedR

Please compare the aged form to let: to impede, to delay

letted

letted

become, befall, beget, behold, beseech, beset, betake, bethink, forbear, forbid, forecast, foreknow, foresee, foretell, forget, forgive, forsake, forswear, hamstring, miscast, misdeal, misgive, mislay, mislead, misspell, misspend, mistake, misunderstand, outbid, outdo, outgo, outgrow, outride, outrun, outshine, overbear, overcast, overcome, overdo, overhang, overhear, overlay, overleap, overlie, overlook, override, overrun, oversee, overshoot, oversleep, overtake, overthrow, partake, recast, remake, repay, rerun, reset, retell, rewrite, unbend, unbind, underbid, undergo, understand, undertake, undo, waylay, withdraw, withold, withstand.

Paradigm

Our dynamic language dimension has paradigms.

All languages have patterns. We can name them paradigms. Let us think about the mid-to-back pattern that may help us comprehend language dynamics.

American regional variants may have patterns as spin spun spun

spin span span

as well as

spin span spun

We are yet not likely to find a pattern as spin spun span

Language paradigms may join word meanings or sound shapes. We may think about word inner syntax and compare observations from pages 105, 115, and 132.

See all book formats

Some researchers explain verb irregularity with language history. Many people learn and speak English without a single lesson in language history, however. Whether we are bilingual, multilingual, or second language learners, we cannot know things we have never learned (!)

People pass language on, from generation to generation, another argument might be. There is not even one natural language on Earth to have remained the same over the past few thousands of years.

Finally, also ages ago, when humans were evolving language, those were sure the language dynamics to shape language forms: the verb “to spell” has no meaning in common with the verb “to smell”, for example. We may not need a detailed theory on language dynamics. Most people find irregular verbs natural to pick up.

__Smiley PNGIt is enough to think about the places and manner to speak.

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