8.2. Ćwiczenia na Ekpresję i wszystkie Aspekty

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Exercise 45. Eagles preen. Let us try merging features with the basic, simple cue. We can combine the variables {ON}, {IN}, {TO}, and {AT} with extents for grammatical Time, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.


We can use our virtual words and focus on the language structure. The exercise may look very simple. Simple habits yet really can encourage refined language behavior.Link to the color code and virtual words

Let us remember our mind practice, from Exercise 4.

Exercise 45__Example

Exercise 45__Task

Exercise 46. Let us merge features and think about Expression. We can use our phimo and bimo, still. Please provide the variables and arrow cues for target grammatical time and form.

Exercise 46__Example

Exercise 46__Task

Exercise 47. Let us practice deciding {ON} our extents. We complete the structures and draw the arrow cues. Not everyone fancies speaking about feelings and thoughts. It may be important to try to represent them in language, however. We can think about time and change.

When we are able to put words together well, we are able to represent notions in language. We can name this ability representation, as there is always more than one way to put words together and make sense.

Example: I love …

Answer: I love language.

(You can answer without telling anyone, remember the mind practice.)

1. I hate …

2. I thought that … was pretty.

3. I remembered … then.

4. I considered … important.

5. I want

6. I hated … when I was a child.

7. I think that … is stupid. [TABOO]

8. I remember

9. I consider … important.

10. I wanted … when I was a child.

Exercise 48. It is natural to follow what is good for us. Therefore, let us try to “trade” language features.

Example: I love

Answer: I have (always) loved language.

Again, we can give our answers in our thoughts.

1. I think (about)

2. I concluded

3. I like

4. I keep

5. I sensed

6. I thought (about)

7. I feel (always, that)

8. I was thinking (about)

9. I learned

10. …. means a lot to me.

Exercise 49. Our new Aspect brings Perfect Progressive tenses. It has an open time frame. Let us practice our linguistic gravity. We have part the mapping cues. We can stay with the Affirmative. We may not want much to do in one go.

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Example 1: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 10:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 18:00 P.M.

Answer: I had breakfast.

PAST arrow CLOSED real-time frame

Example 2: have breakfast
EVERY DAY, 8:00 ― 8:30 A.M.
TIME NOW: 8:15 P.M.

Answer: I have been having breakfast.

PRESENT Perfect Progressive arrow cue OPEN real-time frame

1. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Monday, 10:00 P.M.

2. work
MONDAY ― FRIDAY, 9:00 ― 17:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Saturday, after 19:00 P.M.

3. read
EVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 23:00 P.M.

4. read

Feature IN arrowEVERY DAY, 22:00 ― 24:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: 00:15 P.M.

5. go to the gym
TUESDAYS 19:00 ― 20:00 A.M.
TIME NOW: Wednesday, after 21:15 P.M.

Always some rest

We never need to do all exercises in one turn. Especially before tests and exams, it is good to have some rest.

There are no collective or unconscious language competences or performances. Psychoanalytic theories have no validity in our psycholinguistic perspective. Personal language competence is personal knowledge about language. Personal language performance is personal ability to use own knowledge for speaking or writing. Conscious practice of features and variables can help our skills really much. Let us yet mind also to relax from time to time, in order to be fit to take challenges.

I suggest you get back with this page after you’ve at least gotten yourself a glass of carrot juice.

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Exercise 50. Let us practice our learner proper egoism (compare Chapter 8.1). We learn to decide {ON} our language extents. We cross out the cue that would not make sense.

Example: She (cherish) her friends.

Exercise 50__Example cue

Answer: She has cherished her friends.

Exercise 50__Answer cue

1. The book set (consist) of five parts.

Exercise 50__Task 1 cue

2. She (sound) like under a bad impression.

Exercise 50__Task 2 cue

3. Yesterday afternoon, he (recall) his school years with friends.

Exercise 50__Task 3 cue

4. She just (recognize) the handwriting now.

Exercise 50__Task 4 cue

5. He (agree) to the new conclusion just now.

Exercise 50__Task 5 cue

6. Now, she (appreciate) the ancient manuscript for an hour.

Exercise 50__Task 6 cue

7. He (want) to go to the Arctic before he went to the Antarctic.

Exercise 50__Task 7 cue

8. The house (belong) to the family for 10 years.

Exercise 50__Task 8 cue

9. He usually (respect) other opinions, but not that time.

Exercise 50__Task 9 cue

10. This time tomorrow, she (see) her brother.

Exercise 50__Task 10 cue

From the key: example 7 shows we always should consider the entire utterance, for our time reference. The verb form “went” places the stretch of speech in the PAST.

We can consider the alternate language forms. In example 3, a phrase as *yesterday afternoon, he will recall his school years with friends, could not work with our cognitive map for YESTERDAY. In example 8, a phrase as *the house will have been belonging to the family for 10 years, would go against natural human possessiveness. Both phrases would be ungrammatical.
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Grammar is not only about style. It is also about logic and sense.

Exercise 51. Let us try features together with time frames. Perfect tenses have open time frames. We have the time span underlined. Naturally, we happen to combine the time reference: we can talk TODAY about matters we consider PAST, for example.

We are working on flexible habits, not behaviorist reflexes. We can learn to stay {ON} our extents, for hearts and minds, regardless of any cues.

Example: TODAY, PRESENT; she, work

Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

Answer: She has been working. {AT}

1. YESTERDAY, PAST; she, believe it

2. TODAY, PRESENT; he, know the answer

3. TODAY, PAST; they, see each other

4. TOMORROW, FUTURE; he, live here for ten years

5. YESTERDAY, PAST; she, speak with them

6. YESTERDAY, PAST; he, write for an hour

7. TOMORROW, FUTURE; you, work here for five years

Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

8. TODAY, PAST; we, hike in the mountains

9. TODAY, PRESENT; she, exercise for an hour already

Exercise 51__Example time frame and feature

10. TOMORROW, FUTURE; he, watch television, at this hour

Exercise 52. We have only part the cues: we practice independent language skill. We put our verbs into the PAST, and then in the PRESENT. Let us mind Expression, the Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.

We may refer to literature, for grammar and style. We can go wikipedia.org for literary and other reference. We never need to adopt a story to use it. Naturally, we never re-write a story to show it for ours. We can take stories figuratively and learn from their styles or concepts, without copying.

Samson the Agonist is a story of a hero who had magic hair that gave him power. Nowadays, nobody believes in such hair and understanding as well empathy for the hero is lower. Naturally, we do not have to believe everything we read, online either.

“Observations as by a grain of sand”

Exercise 52__Example

Exercise 52_Task1

Exercise 52__Task2

Exercise 52__Task3

Exercise 52__Task4

Exercise 52__Task5

Obviously, wits cannot be something we grow on our heads. Let us now put the story in our PRESENT time extent. This journey has had some dramatic narrative already, compare Exercise 44, in Chapter 7.1.

Answer: The grain of sand, with its power to stay on the shore and in the sea, is thinking about a proper measure for own composition.

1. Length does not seem to give granularity the right proportion. A modicum is not the argument to the grain of sand: it brings to mind limitation rather than weight.

2. The grain of sand can think about wisdom. What is wisdom? It may be a grain of wit and manhood well resolved, but the grain of sand does not consider going into a drama like that of Samson the Agonist really necessary …

Our sense for distance and time may encourage altering the word “that” in the PAST time extent to the word “this”, when we are about the PRESENT grammatical time.

Modal verbs can challenge our logic. Feel welcome to Chapter 9.9. Introduction to Modal verbs2

Feel welcome to tell me what you think

Feel welcome to tell me what you think, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.


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