7.1. PRAKTYKA DLA SERCA I UMYSŁU

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS)

Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.

 

SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive.
APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.

 

Example: to think

 

Answer:
PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ONstative, variable {ON}
to consider, to believe
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PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE INdynamic, variable {IN}
to be cerebrating, to be pondering

 

1. to see; 2. to expect; 3. to taste; 4. to feel; 5. to value; 6. to consider; 7. to smell; 8. to prize; 9. to look; 10. to ponder; 11. to mind; 12. to remember; 13. to denote; 14. to import; 15. to touch; 16. to mark; 17. to express; 18. to observe; 19. to figure; 20. to typify.

 

Exercise 40. We paraphrase the verbs and tell where we could take the ING, and where we would mostly stay {ON} our cognitive extents. Our answers do not have to be identical. Humans differ in stative verb use.

 

1. to hold; 2. to consist; 3. to keep; 4. to appear; 5. to indicate; 6. to argue; 7. to suggest; 8. to signify; 9. to matter; 10. to concern.

 

Exercise 41. Let us think over the various impressions that phrases as „I’m loving it” or „I’m hating it” might give.

 

Exercise 42. We continue comparing the variables {ON} and {IN}. We have only part the arrow cues now. SUB-CHAPTER 5.1. tells how to use the cues. We are staying in the grammatical PAST.

 

The story has a little ambiguity: in everyday circumstances, we may hear or read words we have never come across before.

 

We should not let unfamiliar vocabulary disorient us. Here, we learn to keep our time reference against even unusual wording.

 

Our story is about the GREENSHANK’S closest relative, the GREATER YELLOWLEGS, meeting the LESSER YELLOWLEGS.

 

PICTURE: GREATER YELLOWLEGS

GREATER YELLOWLEGS, PHOTO BY MIKE BAIRD, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

 

The tale is a little inspired with ARISTOTLE and intended to be mildly humorous. Regarding criticism on Aristotle, feel welcome to the BOOK INFORMATION.

 

A self-respecting story tells about animals or objects that think and talk, not about humans ascribed animal or thing features. Such is our story. The birds really have different songs.

 

Example: One late afternoon, the Greater Yellowlegs 1. (hear) the two-note ditty in the crescent near the shore. Cousin Lesser 2. (chirp) mighty out of tune (!)
CUES

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, EXAMPLE TASK

 

Answer: heard: {ON}; was chirping: {IN}

 

A. The Greater 3. (fly) up to the path and 4. (think) about the reason for the ditty. Sure Nature 5. (give) it some melody. Speaking about it in detail yet 6. (can be) a huge enterprise.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 3-6

 

B. The Greater 7. (ponder) on some of the particulars, when he 8. (see) the Lesser Yellowlegs by the seashore.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASKS 7-8

 

C. The Lesser Yellowlegs 9. (can try) the three-note whistle, it N 10. (be) in violation of the laws of physics, 11. (argue) the Greater Yellowlegs. The Lesser Yellowlegs 12. (appear) very similar in size.

 

D. “Not without a memory aid”, the Lesser 13. (retort). The two-note 14. (be) the only melody he 15. (know) by heart.

 

E. The Greater Yellowlegs 16. (expect) the refutation. However, there always 17. (exist) Thought, for rare but possible sounds.

 

F. Rare sounds 18. (feel) heroic, the Lesser Yellowlegs (observe). Education 19. (mean) both unpopularity and wisdom, whichever 20. (import) worse individually.

 

G. The uncouth absurd of the situation 21. (consist) in being out of place without moving, the Greater Yellowlegs 22. (declare).

 

H. The Lesser Yellowlegs 23. (deem) that impossible. One place 24. (involve) one place, however negative the relation.

 

I. The two 25. (meditate) steadily, when the Lesser 26. (sigh). Elaborating on the two-note 28. (chance) the common sense.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 42, TASK 25
EMOTICON: A JOKE

 

Exercise 43. We compare the variables {ON} and {IN} within all our time extents, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. As there is more language logic to manage, we have all arrow cues.

 

Our next story is about a creature from Cimmerian Bosporus, the dayfly.

 

Example: About the summer solstice, dayflies 1. (come) to exist in Cimmerian Bosporus. According to a legend, a dayfly 2. (begin) its life in the morning, and 3. (die) before the second day sunset.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 1-3

 

Answer: come, begins, dies; {ON}

 

A. It 4. (be) early morning. The dayfly 5. (flutter) its wings in the sunrise light. “I 6. (be) a day-fly”, it 7. (think). The spontaneous circumstance 8. (give) it its name.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 4-8

 

B. The morning 9. (be) very bright and fresh. The dayfly 10. (wonder) over the water and the air, the green and the colorfulness of vegetation, when it 11. (see) a dry leaf.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 9-11

 

C. It 12. (know) that water 13. (come) from the earth and the air. It 14. (cogitate) if dry leaves 15. (belong) with green leaves.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 12-15

 

D. It 16. (fly) past a vividly red rose flower when a butterfly 17. (stop) it for a little conversation. “You 18. (seem) to be this most daily of creatures”, the butterfly 19. (say).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 16-19

 

E. “Right, I 20. (name) myself a dayfly”, the dayfly 21. (respond). “Living for a day 22. (form) the essence of my existence. Nothing that 23. (become) can be eternal, anyway.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 20-23

 

F. This 24. (be) very interesting”, the butterfly 25. (remark). “I sure also 26. (become).” — “I 27. (think) about it when I 28. (see) that dry leaf over there”, the dayfly 29. (reply).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 24-29

 

G. „I 30. (contemplate) if the becoming of dry leaves 31. (happen) along the becoming of the day, dayflies, and… butterflies.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 30-31

 

H. The butterfly 32. (disapprove). “I sure N 33. (will answer) this! You 34. (can see) that we 35. (differ). Our wings 36. (be) dissimilar.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 32-36

 

I. “Nobody 37. (deny) this”, the dayfly 38. (concede). “It 39. (be) the becoming that I 40. (distrust).
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 37-40

 

J. This morning 41. (become) broad daylight, and this day 42. (become) a night. However, the day and the night 43. (can inhere) in disparate matters, I 44. (feel). One of them 45. (may be) the light.”
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 41-45

 

K. The butterfly 46. (shrug) its wings and 47. (fly) away.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 43, TASKS 46-47

*****

From the key: We can perceive the verb WILL as referring to the PRESENT or the FUTURE.

 

PRESENT
„I sure will not answer this!”
We can make a close synonym, saying,
„I have no wish to answer this.”

 

FUTURE
„This morning is becoming broad daylight,
and this day will become a night.”
We would make a close synonym, saying,
„This is what is going to happen.”

 

The verb to become has had a role in language history.

 

We can make better acquaintance with it further in the travel. We can interpret the word “day” as 24 hours on Earth, daytime, a time, age, or even an epoch. I hope you do your dictionary work (!)

EMOTICON: SMILE

 

*****

 

Exercise 44. We can look to grammatical Time and Expression now (please compare CHAPTER 5).

 

When we want to deny something, we can use the Negative. In our notes, we can distinguish the Negative with the letter N.

 

When we want to ask a question, we can use the Interrogative. We can distinguish it with the question mark, (?).

 

First, we can place our story mostly in the PRESENT. We name this manner to tell a story the dramatic narrative. Then, we can take the story to the PAST.

 

This should help us see how our natural logical capacities can work together, for the grammatical time.

 

Our story is about the westerly, the kind of wind that happens to rise in oceans. Westerlies influence the weather. Some scientists have blamed splits in westerly currents for record temperatures, hot or cold.

 

Some observers even suspected extraterrestrial or supernatural influences over the weather, while it was… a westerly.

 

We have only part the arrow cues. Let us mind that a sense for target time can be very useful with Modal verbs.

 

Example: The westerly wind 1. (rise) in the high seas. Its resilient body of air 2. (give) its first sough.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 44, EXAMPLE

 

Answer: The westerly wind rises in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gives its first sough.

 

A. It 3. (come) to the land and 4. (feel) a difference. Now, the high ocean 5. (be) the past and the land 6. (become) the present.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK A

 

B. The shore 7. (delineate) the past and the present. It 8. (be) the limit for both. The wind 9. (play) with the matter and 10. (frolic) into eddies.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK B

 

C. The wester 11. (swirl), when the thought about the future 12. (come) to it. The ocean N 13. (be) the future to it. The shoreland N 14. (be) the future to it, either. Where 15. (be) the future?
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK C

 

D. Mountain peaks 16. (shine) their snowy cool in the moonlight. The wester 17. (get) there before the day 18. (begin)? The wester 19. (set) its course to the mountain range.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK D

 

E. The shoreland 20. (change) from the wester’s present to the wester’s past. Then, there 21. (be) something indivisible and intermediate about the present. The mountains 22. (be) the wester’s present, when the wester 23. (get) there.
PICTURE: EXERCISE 44 TASK E

 

We can take our story into the grammatical PAST. Please try to focus on the verb WILL.

 

Answer: The westerly wind rose in the high seas. Its resilient body of air gave its first sough.

 

A1. It came to the land and felt a difference. Now, the high Ocean was the past and the land had become the present.

 

B1. The shore delineated the past and the present. It was the limit for both. The wind was playing with the matter and frolicking into eddies.

 

Please mind: we can use the variable {ON} for an activity that gets on the map, while something else is happening: The wester was swirling, when the thought about the future came to it.

 

TEXT EXTENT: THE WESTERLY WAS SWIRLING -- WHEN THE THOUGHT CAME

 

We can envision our grammatical logic as interconnected.

 

TEXT EXTENTS: PRESENT AND PAST, THE WESTERLY SETS -- SET -- ITS COURSE

 

Our logic for grammatical time can work in connected sets. Could we connect or merge our variables {IN} and {TO}? Feel welcome to further journey.
CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
BUTTON: CHAPTER 8. THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

Reklamy