Witryna w przebudowie
Zdarza się nam pisać słówka na podobne sposoby, na przykład cove and dove, a mówić wedle takiej podobnej pisowni inaczej: [coυv], [dΛ:v]. Możemy sprawdzać sposób mówienia słów w słownikach. Słowniki nazywają go pronuncjacją. Słowniki podają językowe standardy.
STRONA W BUDOWIE
Some people will have Standard American English for General English. However, General English may imply a limited vocabulary.
There seems to be some misunderstanding about the language standard. Some people would say that a standard is something prescribed and imposed by an authority. Could the language standard be merely a threat on human freedom? What would life be like without the language standard?
There could be no dictionaries without the language standard. How could we choose on spellings, pronunciations, and meanings ― without a standard?
How could we learn and speak our native tongues without dictionaries? Could we depend on someone to tell us what all words mean? Could there even be a single person to replace all language knowledge and language autonomy? No, there could not be anyone.
How could business people work and trade? How could we interpret a business contract if words would not have any dictionary reference? Someone says that “buying” is “selling”: who is there to „pay”?
Language standard is not a fixed way to speak and write. Live languages change. Their language standards change with them. Within language standards, we can speak about entire ranges of speech sound qualities accepted for the standard. Similarly, we can speak about language variants.
“Brid” can be a dialectal form for “bird”. “Guid” and “eyen” can stand for “good” and “eyes” in literature.
Standard American English does not rule out dialects or literary uses. With regard to the standard, dialectal as well as literary American is not ungrammatical. It is not “bad” or “erroneous”. We can see this in Chapter 9.4, with Mark Twain’s writing.
Appendix 3 regards regional American English.
Let us define the language standard in a way that could work for our minds. Making own definitions belongs with our individual language autonomies. Here is my idea.
A language standard can be the range of speech sound and written qualities regarded representative of a language as an autonomous linguistic reality. (Everyone is free to coin own definition. We try to make a definition that could work for other people, too.)
No one can deny quality and autonomy to American English. American English is not British English or any other variety of English. The American bald eagle has symbolized good language skills in our journey.
A language variety is an independent language within a group of languages of the same kind. American English is a variety of English coequally with British, Australian, Irish, and other recognized Englishes in the world. None is superior or inferior.
Please find the Voice of America at voanews.com. There is worthwhile, standard American English along with materials for learners, as especially slow and clear news readouts. The Learning English site has advice for learners.
Exercise 34. Let us practice our linguistic gravity. We put all verbs in parentheses in the Simple PAST. They will have a closed time frame, and remain ON a PAST cognitive ground. We think how to say the exercise.
1. The kitten (spill) all the milk by the mill down the hill.
2. The hedgehog (hide) the apples from the brid in a guid jar with a lid.
3. The rabbit (strew) the cashews for the jabiru and (go on) making his debut callaloo.
4. The gades (lay) a fair-trade plan for a decade.
5. The corn-fed chick (flee) the shed for some strick.
6. The adept turtle (keep) his hep by the skep except when the bees (sweep).
7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.
8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast.
9. The southern wind (heave) the sea and (sheave) the tides to incline a span unsized in eyen.
10. The butterfly (weave) in a cove, the dove taut (think) about a courtly lot.
All examples in exercise 34 belong with the grammatical PAST. We can say they make a PAST cognitive time extent. Let us think we are looking up the word “extent” in a dictionary. The verb “to extend” means holding, reaching, having a scope, capacity, or compass. If we look up the noun, we may conclude that an extent is a range or value over which something extends (after the ahdictionary.com). We can learn to make own extents.
We do not have to view our extents as making flat surfaces. They can be ideas we relate to consciousness and intellect, capacities we grant to particular thoughts. Our PRESENT time is essential. We could not perceive our PAST or FUTURE without our PRESENT.
We can learn to make our language scopes with real words. We may read dictionaries for pleasure, following our associations, or word collocations and origins. The bigger the dictionary the better. We read the dictionary until we comprehend it (!)
Exercise 35. We can have the prepositions, ON, IN, and TO for linguistic features, values, qualities, factors, or integrated variables. Whatever we choose to name them, we can use our prepositional devices without including them with our speaking or writing content — as with classic grammars, where we can use Simple, Progressive, or Perfect tenses without saying or writing the words simple, progress, or perfect. Our devices can make our language frameworks or structures, as in Exercise 18.
With deliberation on form and sound, let us try arrow cues and time frames with mapping values. Our pieces of thought are longer, more proportionate to everyday language. We can be very serious about grammar and keep a sense of humor: when we humans learn, we happen to be very formal, and this may burden our learning and language styles. Good American English does not have to be gravely serious (!)
Example: Right when he (1) had fought his dependence on the game of Monopoly, he (2) fell for saber fencing completely. An Alaskan himself, he now (3) hopes to overcome a preoccupying interest in Antarctic life and learning habits, more interesting than expected.
1. He (4) sold his vintage Chevy and nearly (5) bought a Jeep when he (6) thought that his vehicle (7) approximated an expression of his ego. A Jeep almost (8) portended a personality change.
2. A newspaper article on alpha and beta males seriously (9) wound him up. He (10) was neither. He needed another male prototype.
3. He (11) has sought a role model for himself for years. Nobody (12) has met his expectations on both personality and body build, however. He (13) thinks he yet could not have own body and mind for separate.
4. He (14) has pursued some philosophy to make his stature manlier with age. At the present, he (15) is very pessimistic as to a resolve between essence and matter. Actually, he (16) fears he (17) will resort to stoicism.
5. His friend (18) has brought him a few comedy movies to cheer him up. You need some sense of humor, if you (19) want to put up with a woman in your life, he (20) says. The woman always (21) is another Self.
“Contemporary men”, we could say. (Or, would this be just Jim?)
Exercise 36 Let us practice our Expression with the Simple pattern on a PAST time extent. We continue with our immersion. Chapter 9 and Chapter 10 have more insight about the verbs can and need. For now, we just view them in context.We can compare the exercise above.
Example: Consciously pragmatic, Jill (decide) that tidying on her own (be) N too traditionalist. At least she (remember) where her things usually (be) before she (put) them somewhere completely else.
Answer: decided, was not (N, the Negative), remembered, were, put
In the beginning, we may care to write up entire answers. Our human memories can learn with writing habits. It is up to us to choose (!)
Consciously pragmatic, Jill decided that tidying on her own was not too traditionalist. At least she remembered where her things usually were before she put them somewhere completely else.
1. She (take) doing the cooking, while her housemate (do) the shopping. They only never (get) totally honest with one another on favorite comedy episodes.
2. An article on family roles in kite flying (incline) her towards psychoanalysis for a while. She yet soon (conclude) that she (need) N another person to be herself. Being herself anyway (happen) to her all the time, and she simply (like) to hold the strings. The West Coast had the weather.
3. Her progressing interest in literature almost (make) her a battleground between Sandburg and Creeley. Sandburg (bring) her to the belief that she never on earth (can think) in terms for one poet strictly, although there (be) no point ever to try talking two poets at exactly the same time.
4. After some study of a number of concepts on the cosmos, she (picture) the humanity as an odd kind of fish in a series of still larger fish tanks. Some point in the series, there (be) N any sense to try bringing another fish tank to imagination. It (require) adding one more imagined fish tank.
5. She (tolerate) pop music well and (watch) American football with friends, but she always (choose) her fountain pens on her own and (keep) them just for herself.
Feel welcome to more exercise.
Feel welcome to tell me what you think, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.