(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS)
Let us sum up on the logical capacities for language we have recognized so far. We can visualize them as extents.
The grammatical Time: Present, Past, or Future. We can recur to CHAPTER 1.
For our language logic with speaking or writing, we can think about one extent, which would be PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE, at the particular time.
For our speaking and writing, we can think about one extent, which has one Aspect value at a time.
Expression: the Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, or Negative Interrogative. We can view CHAPTER 5: as there are no Affirmative Interrogative structures, or a „Negative Affirmative” syntax, we have separate extents here.
We can picture all our extents together.
The colors here can form part a custom palette. Naturally, everyone is welcome to choose own colors.
We happen to say the FUTURE brings the things that are BEFORE us. We also happen to say that PAST things are BEHIND us.
We could look forward or back to events from where we are always, our PRESENT.
In language, it is important that we perceive our target grammatical time and Aspect. We can join the Time and Aspect in one symbol. Arrows have been widely known symbols to indicate a flow or direction.
The Simple Aspect can work without an auxiliary. We can represent it with a plain arrow. We begin with the grammatical PRESENT.
We have pictured the Progressive Aspect as being in a spot, a place in a map. We can represent it with a dot.
The Perfect Aspect has showed our way to a place or time. We can represent it with an arrow or spearhead added to our simple dart.
Let us try to see our logic as in a chart.
Please mind that our arrows are not shooting arrows. They are just to help find own way with grammar forms. If we make models to play, we make big models of soft material, as plush, especially if there should be little children around.
We can mark our arrows for Expression. The question mark and the letter N can do for the Interrogative and the Negative; we can join the letter and the mark, for the Negative Interrogative; the Affirmative can remain unmarked.
The arrows can prove very useful with Modal verbs. The verbs do not show the target grammatical time, in the form. We tell the Time from the context. Let us compare.
You might do the exercises tomorrow.
The target grammatical time here is the FUTURE. We can use our plain arrow.
The same form of the Modal verb, might, can tell about the PRESENT.
You might do the exercises now.
You are welcome to some practice when you find it fit, really.
5.2. VIRTUAL WORDS AND REAL SYNTAX