3.4. Ćwiczenia dla czasu i charakteru

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Exercise 7. To get along with our language patterns at school, we can combine the time reference and the grammar label. We have given much focus to the Aspect. Let us try to think time first, to make our language natures flexible.


Exercise 7__Task


Example: pattern 1

Answer: the Present Progressive


We can figure out figure out the remaining options, thinking about our Big Chart (Chapter 3.3).Link to chapter 3.3. Big Chart for all persons and three paths


Please remember about our mind practice from Chapter 1.2. Good grammar is about flexible thinking habits (!)

Link to chapter 1.2. Mind practice

__Smiley PNG



Our next exercise works on a very important level in language learning. The level is metalinguistic. Metalanguage is the language we use to think and talk about language. It can belong with our inner language. The particle “meta-” comes from Greek and may mean “on, about”. It is most often in the metalanguage only that we can tell if a form is second or third.


Without metalanguage, we might recognize forms as „those ending in ED only”. Metalanguage lets us tell there are regular and irregular verbs, and it is the Perfect pattern in which to seek the 3RD form. It is also metalanguage to say that regular verbs have the same, regular, second and third forms always to end in ED. We tell if the form is second or third by the syntax, the way we string words together.



Exercise 8. We can practice associating the auxiliary and the pattern, the syntax we need to express our reference to grammatical time. We can begin with “saying” the answers in our thoughts only, as in our mind practice.


With progress, we will not need to imagine saying or writing entire words in our thoughts forever. Our human brains can make inner language habits that work more efficiently. We only begin with “saying” and „seeing” in our minds, writing, and comparing. When we think about the sound and shape of a word, we can say we conceptualize it.


Example: had

Answer: third


We “say” and „see” in our thoughts as fast as possible, “without thinking”, at best.


1. was


2. is


3. have


4. were


5. has


6. will be


7. will have


8. are


9. am


Exercise 9. Auxiliaries be and have may build the Progressive and the Perfect patterns. However, they have the same forms for the grammatical person when they are head verbs. Let us practice them for the time extent (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE) with the persons. As in exercise 3, we can write “all persons” where our important language forms remain the same. It is not wrong to have language work for an important activity.

Example: have in the PRESENT

Answer: I, you, we, they have <<>> he, she, it has


1. be in the PRESENT


2. have in the FUTURE


3. be in the PAST


4. be in the FUTURE


5. have in the PAST


Exercise 10. Let us try the patterns from exercise 8 with the virtual bimo. It is a virtual “regular verb” and makes the second and third forms with ED. Mind first, let us only think the answers. We write them when we have done the thinking for the entire exercise, to compare exercise 8.


Example: had

Answer: bimoed



The task is the same as in exercise 8.



Everyone may decide independently, yet this grammar course recognizes core words only with regard to tense patterns. The words are the verbs TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO and WILL. We exercise the words we use most often for our time reference. We do not intend to limit our vocabularies.


Exercise 11. We can expand our focus and think about the grammatical person as well. We can write “all persons” where the forms remain the same. Doing our thinking, we can place the person last, to exercise flexibility.


Example: be in the PRESENT


Answer: am bimoing, I
are bimoing, you, we, they
is bimoing, he, she, it


1. have in the PAST


2. have in the FUTURE


3. be in the FUTURE


4. be in the PAST


5. have in the PRESENT



Our thinking does not require strict consecution, especially as regards grammatical Time and Aspect (Character of activity). We may picture that as a dynamic theme.


TIME and ASPECT dynamic theme


Exercise 12. We can tell the core word in the pattern first. Then we label the pattern, Aspect first.


Example: am / is / are bimoing

Answer: be, Progressive in the PRESENT


1. have / has bimoed


2. was / were bimoing


3. will be bimoing


4. had bimoed


5. will have bimoed





Our grammar course uses spatialization. Obviously, this does not mean we think about the cosmos, to learn American. We compare the language reference for time with that for earthly space. Spatialization is natural. It is present in all languages. All people first learn where things or persons are, and the ability to tell the hour comes after. Let us see some more detail in Chapter Four.


Link to chapter 4. The Aspect on the map



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